John Holland

Paper #: 93-10-064

In common with many researchers at the Santa Fe Institute, I have been devoting much of my time over the past several years to the study of complex adaptive systems. These systems exemplified by economies, ecosystems, immune systems, and the central nervous system, all have much in common, despite their apparent differences. They all involve large numbers of diverse, interacting agents that learn as they interact, and, in all cases, they give rise to emergent aggregate behavior that is of high interest. Because, complex adaptive systems are above all “social” systems, we may considerably deepen our understanding of social problems, if we can formulate general principles governing the dynamics of such systems.