Borges, Ernesto P.; Kodama, Takeshi and Constantino Tsallis
The rich history of prime numbers includes great names such as Euclid, who first analytically studied the prime numbers and proved that there is an infinite number of them, Euler, who introduced the function ζ(s)≡∑n=1∞n-s=∏pprime11-p-s, Gauss, who estimated the rate at which prime numbers increase, and Riemann, who extended ζ(s) to the complex plane z and conjectured that all nontrivial zeros are in the R(z)=1/2 axis. The nonadditive entropy Sq=k∑ipilnq(1/pi)(q∈R;S1=SBG≡-k∑ipilnpi, where BG stands for Boltzmann-Gibbs) on which nonextensive statistical mechanics is based, involves the function lnqz≡z1-q-11-q(ln1z=lnz). It is already known that this function paves the way for the emergence of a q-generalized algebra, using q-numbers defined as ⟨x⟩q≡elnqx, which recover the number x for q=1. The q-prime numbers are then defined as the q-natural numbers ⟨n⟩q≡elnqn(n=1,2,3,…), where n is a prime number p=2,3,5,7,… We show that, for any value of q, infinitely many q-prime numbers exist; for q≤1 they diverge for increasing prime number, whereas they converge for q>1; the standard prime numbers are recovered for q=1. For q≤1, we generalize the ζ(s) function as follows: ζq(s)≡⟨ζ(s)⟩q (s∈R). We show that this function appears to diverge at s=1+0, ∀q. Also, we alternatively define, for q≤1, ζq∑(s)≡∑n=1∞1⟨n⟩qs=1+1⟨2⟩qs+… and ζq∏(s)≡∏pprime11-⟨p⟩q-s=11-⟨2⟩q-s11-⟨3⟩q-s11-⟨5⟩q-s…, which, for q<1, generically satisfy ζq∑(s)<ζq∏(s), in variance with the q=1 case, where of course ζ1∑(s)=ζ1∏(s).