Krapivsky, P. L.,Redner, S.

We introduce a network growth model based on complete redirection: a new node randomly selects an existing target node, but attaches to a random neighbor of this target. For undirected networks, this simple growth rule generates unusual, highly modular networks. Individual network realizations typically contain multiple macrohubs-nodes whose degree scales linearly with the number of nodes N. The size of the network 'nucleus'-the set of nodes of degree greater than one-grows sublinearly with N and thus constitutes a vanishingly small fraction of the network. The network therefore consists almost entirely of leaves (nodes of degree one) as N -> infinity