Aghamohammadi, C.,Mahoney, J. R.,Crutchfield, J. P.

Classical stochastic processes can be generated by quantum simulators instead of the more standard classical ones, such as hidden Markov models. One reason for using quantum simulators has recently come to the fore: they generally require less memory than their classical counterparts. Here, we examine this quantum advantage for strongly coupled spin systems-in particular, the Dyson one-dimensional Ising spin chain with variable interaction length. We find that the advantage scales with both interaction range and temperature, growing without bound as interaction range increases. In particular, simulating Dyson's original spin chain with the most memory-efficient classical algorithm known requires infinite memory, while a quantum simulator requires only finite memory. Thus, quantum systems can very efficiently simulate strongly coupled one-dimensional classical spin systems.