Gonzalez, Ruben; Santiago F. Elena

The microorganisms associated with an organism, the microbiome, have a strong and wide impact in their host biology. In particular, the microbiome modulates both the host defense responses and immunity, thus influencing the fate of infections by pathogens. Indeed, this immune modulation and/or interaction with pathogenic viruses can be essential to define the outcome of viral infections. Understanding the interplay between the microbiome and pathogenic viruses opens future venues to fight viral infections and enhance the efficacy of antiviral therapies. An increasing number of researchers are focusing on microbiome-virus interactions, studying diverse combinations of microbial communities, hosts, and pathogenic viruses. Here, we aim to review these studies, providing an integrative overview of the microbiome impact on viral infection across different pathosystems.