Painter, Deryc T.; Bryan C. Daniels and Manfred D. Laubichler
The origins of innovation in science are typically understood using historical narratives that tend to be focused on small sets of influential authors, an approach that is rigorous but limited in scope. Here, we develop a framework for rigorously identifying innovation across an entire scientific field through automated analysis of a corpus of over 6000 documents that includes every paper published in the field of evolutionary medicine. This comprehensive approach allows us to explore statistical properties of innovation, asking where innovative ideas tend to originate within a field's pre-existing conceptual framework. First, we develop a measure of innovation based on novelty and persistence, quantifying the collective acceptance of novel language and ideas. Second, we study the field's conceptual landscape through a bibliographic coupling network. We find that innovations are disproportionately more likely in the periphery of the bibliographic coupling network, suggesting that the relative freedom allowed by remaining unconnected with well-established lines of research could be beneficial to creating novel and lasting change. In this way, the emergence of collective computation in scientific disciplines may have robustness-adaptability trade-offs that are similar to those found in other biosocial complex systems.