Genda, Peter Ami; Hans Cosmas Ngoteya; Tim Caro and Monique Borgerhoff Mulder

Critiques of parachute science argue for closer collaborations among local and international scientists. Here, building on such a collaboration, we highlight further challenges when outsiders, typically working through international nongovernmental organizations, fail to respect both the governance framework within which they are working and the realities on the ground. Specifically, we emphasize the importance of observing governance structures, maintaining transparency, and responding flexibly to national and regional priorities (“looking up”), as well as stressing the need to keep a close focus on local cultural context when designing interventions such as educational programs (“looking down”). Addressing the shortcomings for conservation practice contingent on parachute science interventions requires nimble, creative, and respectful actions, which at least in the context of Tanzania, we all still struggle to put into action.