The most famous quote about complex systems is attributed to Aristotle. It says, “The whole is more than the sum of its parts.” (In fact, this is an abbreviation of a longer reasoning of Aristotle in his Metaphysics Vol. VII, 1041b.) Complex systems are systems where the collective behavior of their parts entails emergence of properties that can hardly, if not at all, be inferred from properties of the parts. Nihat Ay is developing and employing an information-geometric formalization of emergence in complex systems.

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