Santa Fe Institute

Foundational Papers in Complexity Science

Last Revision: October 22, 2009

Waddington, C.H. 1942. Canalization of Development and the Inheritance of Acquired Characters. Nature 150:563-565.

Rosenblueth, A., and N. Wiener. 1945. The Role of Models in Science. Philosopy of Science 12 (4):316-321.

Shannon, C.E. 1948. A Mathematical Theory of Communication. Bell System Technical Journal 27:379-423 623-656.

Turing, A.M. 1950. Computing Machinery and Intelligence. Mind, New Series, 59 (236):433-460.

———. 1952. The Chemical Basis of Morphogenesis. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences 237 (641):37-72.

Minksy, M. 1961. Steps Toward Artificial Intelligence. Proceedings of the Institute of Radio Engineers 49 (1):8-30.

Landauer, R. 1961. Irreversibility and Heat Generation in the Computing Process. IBM Journal of Research and Development 5:183-191.

Arrow, K.J. 1962. The Economic Implications of Learning by Doing. Review of Economic Studies 80:155-173.

Kolmogorov, A.N. 1965. Three Approaches to the Quantitative Definition of Information. Problems of Information and Transmission 1 (1):1-7.

Raup, D.M. 1966. Geometric Analysis of Shell Coiling; General Problems. Journal of Paleontology 40 (5):1178-1190.

Neumann, J. V. 1966. Theory of Self-Reproducing Automata. In Theory of Self-Reproducing Automata, edited by A. W. Burks. Urbana: University of Illinois Press. Original edition, Fourth University of Illinois lecture.

Chaitin, G.J. 1966. On the Length of Programs for Computing Finite Binary Sequences. Journal of the ACM 13:547-569.

Conant, Roger C. and W. Ross Ashby. 1970. Every Good Regulator of a System Must be a Model of That System. International Journal of Systems Science 1 (2):89-97.

Anderson, P.W. 1972. More Is Different. Science, New Series 177 (4047):393-396.

Simon, H. 1973. The Organization of Complex Systems. In Hierarchy Theory, edited by H. H. Pattee. New York: George Braziller.

Bennett, C.H. 1973. Logical Reversibility of Computation. IBM Journal of Research and Development 17 (6):525-532.

Smith, J.M. 1974. The theory of games and the evolution of animal conflicts. Journal of Theoretical Biology 47 (1):209-21.

May, R.M. 1976. Simple Mathematical Models with Very Complicated Dynamics. Nature 261 (5560):459-67.

Holland, J.H., and J.S. Reitman. 1977. Cognitive Systems Based on Adaptive Algorithms. SIGART Newsletter (63):49.

Gould, S.J., and N. Eldredge. 1977. Punctuated Equilibria: the Tempo and Mode of Evolution Reconsidered. Paleobiology 3 (2):115-151.

Hopfield, J.J. 1982. Neural Networks and Physical Systems with Emergent Collective Computational Abilities. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 79:2554-2558.

Wolfram, S. 1984. Universality and Complexity in Cellular Automata. Physica D 10:1-35.

Langton, C.G. 1986. Studying Artificial Life with Cellular Automata. Physica D: Nonlinear Phenomena 22 (1-3):120-149.

Derrida, B., E. Gardner, and A. Zippelius. 1987. An exactly solvable asymmetric neural network model. Europhysics Letters 4 (2):167-173.

Gell-Mann, Murray and Seth Lloyd 2003.  Effective Complexity. Santa Fe Institute Working Paper #03-12-069.